Etienne P. LeBel, PhD
Independent Meta-Scientist
University of Western OntarioMeta-LabIGDORE

I investigate the credibility of scientific research, focusing on the field of psychology. My current efforts are focused on Curate Science, a web platform to curate the transparency, reproducibility, and replicability of published findings. I previously lead PsychDisclosure.org, a grassroots transparency initiative that contributed to raising reporting standards at leading journals in psychology. My background is in social psychology where I examined racial biases/prejudice and methodological issues in psychology research (e.g., metric calibration; measurement issues related to replicability, hypothesis testing, and construct validity).

Papers Under Review

Conceptual/Theoretical

LeBel, E. P., Vanpaemel, W., Cheung, I., & Campbell, L. (2018). Evaluating replications with nuance. Being revised for further consideration at Meta-Psychology. PsyArXiv Preprint

Published Peer-Reviewed Articles & Chapters (see for full list)

Conceptual/Theoretical

LeBel, E. P., McCarthy, R., Earp, B., Elson, M., & Vanpaemel, W. (in press). A unified framework to quantify the credibility of scientific findings. Forthcoming at Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science. PsyArXiv Preprint

Conceptual/Theoretical Simulation

LeBel, E. P., Berger, D., Campbell, L., & Loving, T. J. (2017). Falsifiability is not optional. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 113, 254-261. DOI: 10.1037/pspi0000106 PsyArXiv Preprint

Conceptual/Theoretical Simulation

LeBel, E. P., Campbell, L., & Loving, T. J. (2017). Benefits of open and high-powered research outweigh costs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 113, 230-243. DOI: 10.1037/pspi0000049 SSRN Preprint PsyArXiv Preprint [Shiny App]

Conceptual/Theoretical

Heino, M., Fried, E. I., & LeBel, E. P. (2017). Complex phenomena require sophisticated designs: Why we shouldn't give up on replicability. Frontiers in Psychology. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01004 PsyArXiv Preprint HTML

Conceptual/Theoretical

LeBel, E. P., & John, L. (2017). Psychological and institutional obstacles toward more transparent reporting of psychological science. Published in S. O. Lilienfeld & I. D. Waldman (Eds.), Psychological Science Under Scrutiny: Recent Challenges and Proposed Solutions. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN: 978-1-118-66107-9 [Buy from Wiley.com] Preprint

Empirical - Replication Empirical - Meta-analysis

Cheung, I., Campbell, L., LeBel, E.,...Yong, J. C. (2016). Registered Replication Report of Finkel, Rusbult, Kumashiro, & Hannon's (2002) Study 1. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11, 750-764. DOI: 10.1177/1745691616664694 Registered Report HTML Replication 16
Study complies with the Basic 4 (at submission) reporting standard:
  1. Excluded data (subjects/observations): Full details reported in article.
  2. Experimental conditions: Full details reported in article.
  3. Outcome measures: Full details reported in article.
  4. Sample size determination: Full details reported in article.

Conceptual/Theoretical

LeBel, E. P. (2015). A new replication norm for psychology. Collabra, 1(4), 1-13. DOI: 10.1525/collabra.23 HTML

Empirical - Replication

Aarts, A. A. ... , LeBel, E. P., ... , Nosek, B. A. (2015). Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science. Science, 349, aac4716 DOI: 10.1126/science.aac4716 PsyArXiv Preprint Replication 100
Studies comply with the Basic 4 (at submission) reporting standard:
  1. Excluded data (subjects/observations): Full details reported in article.
  2. Experimental conditions: Full details reported in article.
  3. Outcome measures: Full details reported in article.
  4. Sample size determination: Full details reported in article.

Empirical - Replication

Madurski, C.*, & LeBel, E. P. (2015). Replication difficulties of Correll's (2008) modulation of 1/f noise in a racial bias task. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22, 1135-1141. DOI: 10.3758/s13423-014-0757-4 SSRN Preprint Replication 2 *Student co-author
Studies comply with the Basic 4 (at submission) reporting standard:
  1. Excluded data (subjects/observations): Full details reported in article.
  2. Experimental conditions: Full details reported in article.
  3. Outcome measures: Full details reported in article.
  4. Sample size determination: Full details reported in article.

Conceptual/Theoretical

Battista, C., Gauvrit, N., & LeBel, E. P. (2015). Madness in the method: Fatal flaws in triple-blind mediumship research. Published in M. Martin & K. Augustine (Eds.), The Myth of an Afterlife: The Case Against Life After Death. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. ISBN: 0810886774 [Buy on Amazon.com]

Conceptual/Theoretical

Campbell, L., Loving, T. J., & LeBel, E. P. (2014). Enhancing transparency of the research process to increase accuracy of findings: A guide for relationship researchers. Personal Relationships, 21, 531-545. DOI: 10.1111/pere.12053 SSRN Preprint

Empirical - Replication

LeBel, E. P., & Wilbur, C. J. (2014). Big secrets do not necessarily cause hills to appear steeper. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 696-700. DOI 10.3758/s13423-013-0549-2 Replication 2
Studies comply with the Basic 4 (at submission) reporting standard:
  1. Excluded data (subjects/observations): Full details reported in article.
  2. Experimental conditions: Full details reported in article.
  3. Outcome measures: Full details reported in article.
  4. Sample size determination: Full details reported in article.

Empirical - Replication

LeBel, E. P., & Campbell, L. (2013). Heightened sensitivity to temperature cues in highly anxiously attached individuals: Real or elusive phenomenon? Psychological Science, 24, 2128-2120. DOI: 10.1177/0956797613486983 Replication 2 [Addendum] [Supplementary Materials]
Studies comply with the Basic 4 (retroactive) reporting standard:
  1. Excluded data (subjects/observations): Full details reported in article.
  2. Experimental conditions: Full details reported in article.
  3. Outcome measures: Full details reported in article.
  4. Sample size determination: Full details reported in preregistered protocol.
Date of retroactive disclosure: October 1, 2013.

Conceptual/Theoretical

LeBel, E. P., Borsboom, D., Giner-Sorolla, R., Hasselman, F., Peters, K. R., Ratliff, K. A., & Smith, C. T. (2013). PsychDisclosure.org: Grassroots support for reforming reporting standards in psychology. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8, 424-432. DOI: 10.1177/1745691613491437 [Supplementary Materials] †Initiative mentioned in New Yorker piece on cleaning up science.

Empirical - Original

LeBel, E. P., & Campbell, L. (2013). The interactive role of implicit and explicit partner evaluations on ongoing affective and behavioral romantic realities. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4, 167-174. DOI: 10.1177/1948550612448196
Study complies with the Basic 7 (retroactive) reporting standard:
  1. Excluded data (subjects/observations): Full details reported in article.
  2. Experimental conditions: Full details reported in article (N/A; no experimental conditions).
  3. Outcome measures: Several other predictor measures of related, but distinct, relationship constructs (IVs) were also assessed; these went unreported because they were unrelated to our research question. For the DV in our second model, several other (daily) positive relationship behaviors were assessed, but these went unreported because we didn't analyze them or because more complex patterns emerged with those (daily) positive behaviors that were not yet fully understood.
  4. Sample size determination: Recruited as many heterosexual couples as possible via advertisements placed in campus newspapers.
  5. Analytic plans: The analytic plans for the predicted interactive effect between implicit partner evaluations and explicit partner perceptions (on both DVs) were made after examining the data.
  6. Unreported related studies: None (full details reported in article).
  7. Other disclosures: None
Date of retroactive disclosure: February 15, 2018.
Original retroactive disclosure statement

Conceptual/Theoretical

Aarts, A. A. ... , LeBel, E. P., ... , Nosek, B. A. (2012). An open, large-scale, collaborative effort to estimate the reproducibility of psychological science. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7, 657-660. DOI: 10.1177/1745691612462588

Conceptual/Theoretical Simulation

Paunonen, S. V., & LeBel, E. P. (2012). Socially desirable responding and its elusive effects on the validity of personality assessments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103, 158-175. DOI: 10.1037/a0028165 [Monte Carlo Syntax]

Conceptual/Theoretical

LeBel, E. P., & Peters, K. R. (2011). Fearing the future of empirical psychology: Bem's (2011) evidence of psi as a case study of deficiencies in modal research practice. Review of General Psychology, 15, 371-379. DOI: 10.1037/a0025172 †Research covered in Time magazine Ideas piece on trust in psychological research.

Conceptual - Methodological Simulation

LeBel, E. P., & Paunonen, S. V. (2011). Sexy but often unreliable: Impact of unreliability on the replicability of experimental findings involving implicit measures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 570-583. DOI: 10.1177/0146167211400619 [Monte Carlo Syntax]

Conceptual/Theoretical Empirical - Original Empirical - Re-analysis

LeBel, E. P. (2011). Metric calibration of psychological instruments: Utility and feasibility. Saarbrucken, Germany: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing. ISBN: 384654311X [Buy on Amazon.com]

Empirical - Original

LeBel, E. P. (2010). Attitude accessibility as a moderator of implicit and explicit self-esteem correspondence. Self and Identity, 9, 195-208. DOI: 10.1080/15298860902979166
Study complies with the Basic 7 (retroactive) reporting standard:
  1. Excluded data (subjects/observations): Full details reported in article.
  2. Experimental conditions: Full details reported in article (see FN1 for details regarding 3 experimental factors that were tested but ignored given lack of mean differences across conditions).
  3. Outcome measures: Other measures assessed (e.g., causal attribution measures), but went unreported given they were unrelated to the target research question.
  4. Sample size determination: Data collection stopped after reaching a predetermined sample size in both samples (which were eventually combined due to editorial request during peer review). No analyses were performed (in either samples) before data collection was completed.
  5. Analytic plans: The analytic plans for the predicted interactive effect (implicit self-esteem × time interaction effect on explicit self-esteem) were specified after examining the data.
  6. Unreported related studies: Two additional studies were conducted that tested a related but distinct hypothesis. In both samples, the expected pattern of results (implicit self-esteem × time interaction effect on explicit self-esteem) was not observed for reasons not yet understood. The framing and context of these additional studies were sufficiently dissimilar to the two reported studies to justify omitting such information from the published article, as per standard reporting practices at the time.
  7. Other disclosures: None.
Date of retroactive disclosure: February 15, 2018.
Original retroactive disclosure statement

Conceptual - Methodological Empirical - Re-analysis

LeBel, E. P., & Gawronski, B. (2009). How to find what's in a name: Scrutinizing the optimality of five scoring algorithms for the name-letter task. European Journal of Personality, 23, 85-106. DOI: 10.1002/per.705 [NLT Scoring Algorithm (SPSS Syntax)]

Empirical - Original

LeBel, E. P., & Campbell, L. (2009). Implicit partner affect, relationship satisfaction, and the prediction of romantic breakup. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 1291-1294. DOI: 10.1016/j.jesp.2009.07.003 [Partner NLT Scoring Algorithm (SPSS Syntax)] [Supplementary Materials]

Empirical - Original

Gawronski, B., & LeBel, E. P. (2008). Understanding patterns of attitude change: When implicit measures show change, but explicit measures do not. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1355-1361. DOI: 10.1016/j.jesp.2008.04.005

Conceptual/Theoretical

Gawronski, B., LeBel, E. P., & Peters, K.P. (2007). What do implicit measures tell us? Scrutinizing the validity of three common assumptions. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2, 181-193. DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-6916.2007.00036.x

Working Papers

Conceptual/Theoretical

LeBel, E. P., & Campbell, L. (2015). Bold conjectures meet open science: Accelerating theory development in social psychology by testing riskier predictions via pre-registration. Unpublished manuscript, University of Western Ontario. [Abstract]

Conceptual/Theoretical Empirical - Re-analysis

LeBel, E. P., Borsboom, D., Hasselman, F., & Stahl, C. (2014). Overcoming experimental psychology's replicability crisis by studying humans at the intra- rather than inter-individual level. Unpublished manuscript, Montclair State University. [Intra-Individual Projects] [Working Paper]

Empirical - Replication

Tobin, C.*, & LeBel, E. P. (2014). Replication difficulties of Payne, Hall, Cameron, and Bishara's (2010) multinomial processing tree model of the affect misattribution procedure. Unpublished manuscript, Montclair State University. SSRN Preprint Replication 2 *Student co-author

Empirical - Re-analysis

LeBel, E. P., & Stahl, C. (2013). Modeling mechanism heterogeneity in the affect misattribution procedure: A hierarchical latent-class multinomial processing tree model approach. Unpublished manuscript, Montclair State University. [Working Paper]




Media Coverage

The Science "Reproducibility Crisis" -- And What Can Be Done About It (The Conversation, March 15, 2017)

How the Reproducibility Crisis in Academia is Affecting Scientific Research (Forbes Magazine, February 9, 2017)

Why Academic Research is So Unpredictable and What We Can Do to Fix It (Huffington Post, February 9, 2017)

Why is so much research dodgy? (The Guardian, October 17, 2016)

Effect of Commitment on Forgiveness Investigated in Large-Scale Replication Project (APS Press Release, September 30, 2016)

The 7 biggest problems facing science, according to 270 scientists (Vox, September 7, 2016)

We need to talk about the bad science being funded (The Conversation, July 18, 2016)

Why so much science research is flawed -- and what to do about it (New Scientist, April 13, 2016)

Sloppy Science: Are Sketchy Practices in the Lab to Blame for the Replication Crisis in Psychology Research? (Slate Magazine, March 21, 2016)

Does social science have a replication crisis? (The Washington Post, March 9, 2016)

The six most interesting psychology papers of 2015 (The New Yorker, December 26, 2015)

Whistle-blower scientist wins $10K prize (London Free Press, December 14, 2015)

Make Science More Reliable, Win Cash Prizes: Honoring young researchers who champion rigorous, transparent research is a small step towards changing the culture of science. (The Atlantic, December 10, 2015)

Taxpayer-funded research agencies 'need to wake up' (London Free Press, September 20, 2015)

London scientist Etienne LeBel has exposed questionable work of senior researchers (London Free Press, Stratford Beacon Herald, St. Thomas Times, September 5, 2015)

'Hobo scientist' presses for truth in journals (Ottawa Citizen, September 5, 2015)

Scientists' claims fail rebel's smell test (Sarnia Observer, September 5, 2015)

We tried to reproduce 100 published psychological studies -- the results were abysmal (National Post, August 28, 2015)

Of 100 Published Psychology Studies, Less Than Half Could Be Reproduced Successfully (Popular Science, August 27, 2015)

Study delivers bleak verdict on validity of psychology experiment results (The Guardian, August 27, 2015)

How Reliable Are Psychology Studies? (The Atlantic, August 27, 2015)

Replication Gone Wrong (The Scientist, May 29, 2014)

A happy marriage? It's all about gut feelings (Skeptical appraisal of) (The Telegraph, November 28, 2013)

Cleaning up science (The New Yorker, December 21, 2012)

Can We Trust Psychological Research? (Time Magazine, July 17, 2012)

Older Essays

LeBel, E. P. (2005). The effect of subliminal self-affirmation on stereotype activation. Unpublished Honors thesis, University of Waterloo. PsyArXiv Preprint

LeBel, E. P. (2004). The vanity construct re-examined: LeBel's vanity scale. Unpublished manuscript, University of Waterloo. PsyArXiv Preprint

LeBel, E. P. (2004). Semantic priming in the dual task paradigm. Unpublished manuscript, University of Waterloo. PsyArXiv Preprint

LeBel, E. P. (2003). Need for cognition and attributions in intimate relationships. Unpublished manuscript, University of Waterloo. PsyArXiv Preprint

LeBel, E. P. (2003). Effects of physical attractiveness on relation initiation. Unpublished manuscript, University of Waterloo. PsyArXiv Preprint

LeBel, E. P. (2003). Human mate poaching and enticement processes revisited. Unpublished manuscript, University of Waterloo. PsyArXiv Preprint

LeBel, E. P. (2003). Prosperous deviance: Drug trafficking. Unpublished manuscript, University of Waterloo. PsyArXiv Preprint

LeBel, E. P. (2002). Creativity and mood disorders: Both deviances? Unpublished manuscript, University of Waterloo. PsyArXiv Preprint




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